Presentation of the Transport Sector
Turkey is at the crossroads between East and West and so an important transit country and country of origin and destination. In Turkey, the road transport is the dominant sub-system. Rail is used by 5% of domestic
passenger transport and about 10% of freight transport.
The Turkish transport sector represents
_ 15 Billion EUR equivalent added value to the economy51
_ Share of GDP: 14.5%
_ More than five Million employees in the sector52
_ The services are provided by the public and private sector53
The infrastructure is composed of
_ Rail network – 11,005 km (2008);
_ Road length – 63,000 km; motorways 2,010 km (2009);
_ 42 ports in operation54;
_ 40 airports in operation;
The Rail transport
Rail passenger transport
Only 2% of the total passenger transport on Rail is international transport:
_ Passenger transport by rail is 5,097 Mio. pkm (in 2008)
_ International Passenger transport by rail is 98 Mio. pkm (in 2008)
Rail freight transport
Main goods in freight transport are: agricultural products, livestock, foodstuffs, fodder, solid fuels, petroleum products, ores, metallurgical products, construction materials, fertilizers and chemical products.
About 13% of the total freight volume on rail is international transport:
_ Rail freight volume: 9,185 Mio. tkm (2008)
_ Rail freight volume international: 1,367 Mio. tkm (2008)
The Turkish railway network is operated by the Turkish Railway Company (TCDD).
_ 2,282 km of the network is electrified;
_ Whole network is standard gauge - 1435 mm;
_ 27.5 % of rail network is colour- signalled (3,029 km);
_ All signalled lines have interlocking systems;
_ The rolling stock is composed of:
- About 615 locomotives55;
- About 120 train sets56 (passenger transport vehicles) ;
- About 1,000 coaches (passenger transport vehicles);
- About 17,000 goods transport wagons.
In the past years the investments in road and rail infrastructure have been increased significantly. The focus of investment switched from road to railways.
Turkey has ambitious plans for a high speed network with operational speeds of up to 250 km/h. A first step was completed in 2008 within the Istanbul – Ankara line. The line Ankara-Eskisehir is operative since March 2009.
_ Ankara Konya – operation planned for 2010;
_ Ankara-Sivas– operation planned for 2012.
Turkey's railway links with adjacent countries are:
_ Armenia: closed (see Kars Gyumri Akhalkalaki railway line);
_ Bulgaria: open – 1,435 mm;
_ Greece : open – 1,435 mm;
_ Georgia: under reconstruction - gauge change necessary 1,435 mm/1,524 mm;
_ Iran: via Lake Van train ferry – 1,435 mm;
_ Iraq: No direct link, traffic routed via Syria – 1,435 mm;
_ Syria: open – 1,435 mm.
Investments in interoperability and definition of freight corridors (Action 12)
The investment programme of the Turkish Railway Company to improve interoperability is planned for 2009- 2011 and some projects are ongoing. Additionally, there are some projects planned and conducted by DG
Railways, Ports & Airports Construction (DLH).
The list of the projects is as follows.
THE 2009 – 2011 INVESTMENT PROGRAM OF TURKISH RAILWAY COMPANY
_ Ankara-Istanbul High Speed Rail Line Project (1,400 Mio. EUR)57
_ Ankara-Konya High Speed Rail Line Project57
_ Ankara- Sivas High Speed Rail Line Project57
_ Bandırma-Bursa-Ayazma-Osmaneli High Speed Rail Line Project
_ B.Köprü-Ulukışla-Yenice, Mersin-Yenice-Adana-Toprakkale Line Section - Installation of signalling & telecommunication systems and rehabilitation of infrastructure
_ B.Köprü-Ulukışla-Yenice, Mersin-Yenice-Adana-Toprakkale - Electrification
_ Irmak-Karabük-Zonguldak Line - Installation of signalling & telecommunication systems and rehabilitation of infrastructure
_ Pehlivanköy-Uzunköprü- Greek Border - installation of electrification, signalling & telecommunication systems and rehabilitation of infrastructure
_ Procurement of two ferries for Lake Van
_ Başkentray (Rehabilitation of existing line and construction of new lines between Sincan and Kayaş in Ankara – a part of Ankara-Istanbul HSL Project)
_ Bandırma-Menemen Line - Installation of signalling & telecommunication systems
_ Eskişehir-Kütahya-Balıkesir Line - Installation of electrification, signalling & telecommunication systems
_ Samsun Kalın Line - Installation of electrification, signalling & telecommunication systems
_ Kayaş-Irmak-Kırıkkale Line Section - Installation of electrification systems
_ Kırıkkale-Çetinkaya Line Section - Installation of electrification systems
RAILWAY INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS OF DLH
_ Marmaray Project
_ Halkalı(Istanbul) – Kapıkule (Bulgarian Border) high speed line
_ Ankara – Izmir high speed line
_ Sivas – Kars line
_ Kars – Tbilisi – Baku
For projects after 2014, technical studies for a strategic railway plan and a master plan are ongoing.
The proposed regional rail link from Turkey is illustrated in the following map – Kapikule (Bulgarian border)- Haydarpasa (Istanbul)- Eskisehir-Konya-Yenice-Mersin Port/Iskenderun Port Link (Syrian border).
National Rail company and Main Responsible Authorities in Road Transport
The Turkish State Railways (TCDD) became a state owned enterprise in 1984. The last major restructuring process of the Turkish State Railways started in 2003.
TCDD is managed by a board of directors comprising a chairman and five members. The chairman is also the Director General, assisted by five deputy director generals. There are 18 specialized departments at the
headquarters of TCDD, in addition to legal and public relations units. In the provinces TCDD is organized as seven regional directorates. TCDD owns 99.9 per cent of each of three affiliated corporations, which are organized as public limited companies, Tülomsas (Turkish Locomotive and Engine Industry Inc.), Tüvasas (Turkish Wagon Industry Inc) and Tüdemsas (Turkish Railway Machines Industry Inc.). Additionally, a TCDD – Hyundai Rotem joint venture factory, Hyundai Eurotem, was established in 2007 to manufacture high speed
train sets and passenger wagons as well as electrical train sets and light rail vehicles. Also, a switches and sleepers factory will be established. Including all affiliated corporations and regions, approximately 35.000
employees are working in TCDD.
As the sole train operator in the country, TCDD operates all passenger, freight and suburban railways. Until the opening of the Marrama tunnel (Bosporus undersea railway tunnel), Turkey will continue to have two
separate railway networks (in Thrace and Anatolia) that are only connected through the Bosporus railway ferry in Istanbul.
There are two authorities in charge of the railways, the General Directorate of Railways, Ports and Airports Construction (DLH) and the General Directorate of Turkish State Railways (TCDD).
_ General Directorate of Railways, Ports and Airports Constructions (DLH)
DLH, being one of the central units under the Ministry of Transport (MoT), is responsible for overall planning programming, design and construction of public railways (including urban rail mass transport), ports and airports infrastructure and the approval of private sector projects in these related fields.
_ General Directorate of Turkish State Railways (TCDD) Administration
TCDD is affiliated with the MoT and functions as an autonomous, budgeted public enterprise, within the framework of Decree Law number 233. The MoT carries out the coordination and supervision of the TCDD. The Board of Directors is composed of five members, who have the Director General as chair. In addition to the Departments of Inspection, Legal, Public Relations and Defence Units at Headquarters,
there are 18 specialized departments and 7 Regional Directorates countrywide.
_ There are 3 affiliated corporations active in the railway industry:
_ TULOMSAS (Turkish Locomotive and Engine Industry Joint Stock Company), located in Eskişehir, manufactures locomotives under licence;
_ TUVASAS (Turkish Wagon Industry Joint Stock Company), located in Adapazarı, manufactures passenger coaches;
_ TUDEMSAS (Turkish Railway Machines Industry Joint Stock Company), located in Sivas, manufactures freight wagons
Structural reform (Action 13)
Separation of Operation And Infrastructure
The “Organization of the Railway Sector – Twinning Project”, the first component of the “Turkish Rail Sector Re-Structuring and Strengthening Project” was finished in 2006. This project was conducted to establish a
new legislative and institutional framework for the Turkish rail sector in accordance with the EU acquis.
Within the scope of the project, the “General Railway Law” regulating the rail sector and the “TCDD Law” were drafted together with four complementary implementing regulations:
_ Railway Safety;
_ Interoperability; and
_ Access to Railway Infrastructure.
Final drafts of the laws and implementing regulations were approved as a package by the project leaders in 2007 and submitted to the Ministry of the Transport, the main beneficiary of the project.
The package of draft legislation deals with liberalization and regulation of the rail sector, establishment of necessary bodies, access to railway infrastructure including independent infrastructure allocation and charging issues, licenses, provisions for infrastructure managers and, Public Service Obligations (PSO),
separation of accounts between goods, passenger, infrastructure and PSO, railway safety and interoperability, as well as re-organization of TCDD in line with the General Railway Law.
Technical studies on the draft laws are ongoing. The laws are expected to come into force by the end of 2009.
Within the institutional capacity building component of the pre-accession instrument (IPA) mechanism, provided by the European Commission, a Technical Assistance project called “Reform of Turkish Railways”
has been prepared by TCDD.
The objective of the project will be to establish framework conditions for restructuring and reforming the rail sector for competition, including systems for infrastructure allocation, charging, safety and interoperability at TCDD. The bidding process for the project is ongoing. The project will start in 2009 and will be finished within 24 months.
Infrastructure management and train operations are not separated in terms of accounts for the time being.
Also passenger and freight operations are not separated. Technical studies on separations are ongoing.
Separation is planned for 2010, once the draft laws mentioned above have come into force.
National Safety Authority and Accidents investigation
There is no Railway Safety Authority in Turkey. However, it is planned to establish the necessary bodies as mentioned in draft “General Railway Law” in 2010.
The current procedures for the investigation of railway accidents are as follows:
TCDD (Turkish State Railways) is in charge of the investigation of railway accidents. An “Accident Investigation, Prevention and Assessment Board” has been established at Headquarters as well as “Regional Accident Investigation, Prevention and Assessment Commissions” at Regional Directorates. The board and the commissions are responsible for gathering robust information and data about accident and delivering them to the Directorate General (DG) as soon as possible. After completion of the initial data acquisition,
such board/commissions conduct a detailed study on the accident and elaborate a report to submit to DG.
As a result of these studies, if required, necessary measures to prevent accidents are taken. All statistical data about accidents are kept in the related departments. In case of serious accidents, TCDD may ask an independent board to investigate the accident.
Turkey is at the crossroads between East and West and so a major actor as a transit country and as origin and destination of traffic. Rail is an important national transport mode for passenger and freight. In international
transport rail is still underrepresented.
Turkey launched an ambitious investment program to upgrade the network and to implement high-speed lines until 2012. These will mainly improve the national transport.
Turkey’s proposition for a regional rail (freight) corridor is the link between the Bulgarian border and the Syrian border.
The structural reform according to European guidelines has been started. The separation of infrastructure and operations is not realized, the same is true for the separation of freight and passenger operations. They are planned to be separated in 2010 after a new laws enters into force.
There is no Railway Safety Authority in Turkey. However, it is planned to establish the necessary bodies in 2010, as mentioned in the draft “General Railway Law”.
source: Status Report on the Implementetion of RTAP